For microphthalmia refers to a malformation that makes one or both eyes smaller than normal although they may be structured in a normal manner.
The vision is usually low.

This is attributable to an arrest of development of the optic vesicles in the embryo is generally incompatible with the visual function. There are several known causes eye malformations or as part of the general associate.Si distinguish four main groups: - associated with coloboma, the most frequent form, with autosomal dominant inheritance - with cysts colobomatose - pure isolated, which manifests itself with an eye to size reduced to autosomal dominant or recessive - colobomatous not complicated or associated with other ocular abnormalities or general (brain, ear, teeth, limbs, heart, and genitourinary tract) .L'eziologia is different, depending on the circumstances. The microftalmie colobomatose have the same etiology of colobomas. In the case of microftalmie isolated, there may be sporadic, inherited forms, shapes secondary to infections such as rubella, toxoplasmosis or viral infections during pregnancy. Have occasionally been reported in response to intoxication.

It is a disease from clinical variables, congenital malformations which includes minimum until the almost complete anophthalmia (absence of the eyeball). The visual acuity and field of view relate to the importance of m. and associated anomalies. The eyes are often farsighted. The growth of the orbit, which is related to the volume, sharply decreased compared to the norm, in the case of monolateralità lesion produces an asymmetry major face, that worsens with age.

There are no treatments for m., But they are important psychological support to parents and information. In severe forms it is essential surgical treatment for the insertion of a prosthetic orbital and conjunctival to ensure good growth of the facial mass and decrease the aesthetic consequences.